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  History of Calcutta
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Urbanization of Calcutta:
Calcutta a  port town emerged into a commercial city in the late 18th & early 19th century. As the economic, social, cultural and political center of British power, this market city emerged as the colonial metropolis. Both the British and the indigenous elite contributed to the growth of the

 
 

city. Growing wealth led to the swift transformation of a trading settlement into a flourishing town.The urban fabric represented the contradiction between the rulers and the ruled. It came to be divided into a 'white town' with tree-lined avenues and spacious bungalows,

 
 

and a 'native town', pervaded by dingy lanes and makeshift dwellings. The monopololistic control over markets allowed the British and their Indian collaborators to amass vast fortunes. It was this money which financed the expansion of Calcutta. British inhabitants began moving southwards. The appearance of the

 
 

native town also underwent radical changes as Bengalis themselves started acquiring wealth. Lavish mansions with pillared facades in

 
 

imitation of British country houses were built by the rich Bengalis. The growth of the city witnessed the emergence of the 'Bhadraloke Class'. They benefited from the British rule. This class comprised of zamindars, traders, bankers and professional middle class.

 
 

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